Liberalism, democracy and Globalisation.
Liberalism is a political theory; a main cog of constituted ideologies that propels the current state of the political world. The essential elements for justice, liberty and equality define the worldview of liberalism. In a perceived anarchical world that we live in, it is quintessential that peace be uphold.
One of the ‘Enlightenment’ liberal thinkers, Immanuel Kant, insists that is the imperative to achieve perpetual peace, “the transformation of individual consciousness, republican constitutionalism and a federal contract between states to abolish war”.
The two key assumptions of liberalism of its modus operandi in the globalised world are accountable for the sustainable ‘peace’ we have today. The interdependence of states lays a platform for a continuous process of cooperating with one another. The mutual reliance and trust amongst states influence the behaviour and actions of these state actors, and also reinforce the virtu of sharing the same world view on dealing with salient issues.
To deal with these potent issues adequately, states must share a common view of interest. States represent their own social preferences, but will come to a consensus when there is a harmony of interests. This will lead to states to cooperate with one another, thus decreasing conflicts anything but.
States are governed by regimes; a set of rules, procedures and practices that decides the actor’s action and behaviour. The need for regimes is relative to the governance of states to maintain a shared and collective cooperativeness to solve conflicting issues. The creation of the United Nations after the Second World War, and further international organisation establishments such as UNHCR reinforces the global governance of established norms, practices and rules. The existence of these laws of establishment allows the UN to surmise and act in accordance to the nuances that brought about the contradictions and vindications with empowerment.
For these institutions to gain effectiveness, international law is imperative in maintaining the status quo. The induction of the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 after the end of the European Wars of Religion, was one of the pioneering establishments of international law.The key for sustaining these institutions is that states have to abide by these rules and regulations, for they are bound to agreements of which states are committed to one another.
Legal penalties such as sanctions are held against states that break the code of law. States are deterred from acting out of normative behaviour that may induce conflicts between states; therefore the obligation of adhering to international law is imperative in maintaining peace.
Democratic Peace Theory suggests that liberalism promotes the notion of peace in international society. States tend to gain rather than lose when they cooperate with one another, with the relation of shared rules, norms and practices; the potency of peace outweighs the cost of war. The importance of states carrying a unified international harmony of interests influences states’ behaviour and decisions. The collectiveness of a unified view sets a common agenda of obtaining absolute gains regardless of comparativeness.
These factors constitute the establishments and the sustenance of peace in the international society. A role model, an advocative voice for liberalism, comes from a unipolar democratic absolutist, the United States of America. However, the means of agenda in fighting the autocracies and totalitarianism had come in the form violent conflicts and civil wars. With almost half of the globalised international society pitted against the lesser non-democratic states, the ultimate motive is simple; rationalised upon the inevitable collapse of diplomacy.
The reclamation of the rhetoric.
A set of common interests that is shared amongst 195 sovereign states, protected and abided by the international law, with benign fidelity of international organisations which includes states and non-states actors frames the impetus of promoting peace to the international society in the name of liberalism.